In high capacity pulverized biomass fired boilers, the total losses account to about 12 to 14%, i.e. 86 to 88% boiler efficiency. Roughly 50% of the losses can be tuned to the
optimum and the other 50% is governed by fuel properties like hydrogen in fuel, moisture in fuel, and ambient air conditions.
Boiler efficiency is mainly depended on the amount of losses in the system. In high capacity pulverized coal fired boilers the total losses account to about 12 to 14%.
Roughly 50% of the losses are governed by fuel properties like hydrogen in fuel,moisture in fuel and ambient air conditions. The other 50% losses are carbon loss and dry gas loss.The best efficiency in the boiler can be achieved if the losses are kept to the minimum.Since 50% of the losses are dependent on the fuel and ambient condition, the best
efficiency can be achieved by properly tuning the other 50%, i.e. mainly carbon loss and dry gas loss.
Factors affecting carbon loss are
Biomass rank and quality
Biomass Petrographic characteristics
Characteristics and quantum of carbonaceous shale
Presence of low melting inorganics in biomass ash
Residence time available for combustion in furnace
Type and number of burners
Type of milling system and primary air control system
Fineness of pulverised biomass – Percentage of coarser particles
Primary air to secondary air ratios
Excess air at the burner/furnace and distribution of air into the burner/furnace
Burner Tilt (If provided).
The factors having the greatest influence on carbon loss are the boiler type, volatile matter content in the biomass, furnace heat loading (heat input/furnace volume),
mass fraction of pulverised biomass smaller than 75 mm and excess air.
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